Arc welding is a process used to join metals – but how much do you know about arc welding? What does the arc welding process look like? And what are the main methods used?

That’s what we’ll be exploring in this blog post. Read on for the ins and outs of arc welding, including information about its fundamentals, methods, and crucial components.


What is Arc Welding?

Arc welding is a pivotal welding process that plays a vital role in a wide range of industries, from construction to automotive manufacturing.

At its core, it is a fusion welding technique that employs electricity to generate intense heat for joining metal components. Welders use an arc welding machine to fuse metals together.

The name “arc welding” is derived from the electric arc that forms between the welding electrode and the workpiece, melting the metals and creating a solid bond.


The Arc Welding Process Explained

This welding technique comprises several methods, each with its unique features. However, the fundamental process remains consistent across all these methods.


Power Supply

Arc welding hinges on a power supply, which generates the electrical current necessary for welding. This power supply can either be direct current (DC) or alternating current (AC), depending on the welding method and the materials involved.



The electrode is a vital component of arc welding. It comes in various types, such as consumable and non-consumable electrodes.

Consumable electrodes melt during welding, while non-consumable ones remain intact. The electrode carries the electrical current and initiates the arc when it contacts the workpiece.


Heat Generation

Arc welding is renowned for its ability to create an extremely hot and localised heat source. When the electric arc forms between the electrode and the workpiece, high temperatures can reach thousands of degrees Celsius, causing the metal to melt and form a solid, durable joint.


Shielding Gas

In some welding methods like Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) and Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW), shielding gas is used by arc welders to protect the weld from atmospheric contamination.

This gas creates a stable environment around the weld area, preventing unwanted reactions with oxygen and nitrogen.


Welding Rods and Filler Metals

Depending on the specific welding method, welding rods or base materials/ filler metals may be used to reinforce the weld joint. These materials are carefully selected to match the base metal’s properties and ensure a strong, durable weld.


What Are The Main Types of Arc Welding?

Now that we’ve grasped the fundamentals, let’s explore some common methods used by arc welders.


Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW)

Also known as “stick welding,” SMAW is a versatile and widely used method. It involves a consumable electrode coated in flux, which melts during welding, creating a protective shield against contamination.


Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW)

GMAW, or “MIG welding,” employs a continuous wire electrode fed from a spool. It’s known for its efficiency and is often used in the automotive and manufacturing industries. Gas welding is a popular option for welders.


Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW)

GTAW, also called “TIG welding,” uses a non-consumable tungsten electrode. It’s favoured for its precision and is commonly used in aerospace and specialised applications.


Flux-Cored Arc Welding (FCAW)

FCAW combines elements of both SMAW and GMAW. It uses a continuously fed tubular electrode with flux inside, offering high deposition rates and deep penetration.


Safety Precautions for Arc Welding

Whether you’re a welder or not, you’re likely aware that working with metal welding requires strict adherence to safety measures. Some critical precautions include:

  • Wearing protective gear, including welding helmets with auto-darkening lenses, welding gloves, and flame-resistant clothing.
  • Ensuring proper ventilation to remove harmful fumes and gases.
  • Keeping a fire extinguisher nearby and maintaining a clean workspace.
  • Inspecting equipment regularly to detect any malfunctions or defects.



Arc welding is a fundamental process in the world of engineering and construction, serving as the backbone of countless projects.

Its versatility, efficiency, and ability to create strong, durable joints make it an indispensable tool for joining metal components.

Understanding the basics of this welding technique, its methods, and safety precautions is essential for achieving successful and safe welding outcomes in any engineering endeavour.

So, whether you’re building skyscrapers, fabricating car parts, or crafting intricate metal sculptures, arc welding will continue to be a driving force behind innovation and progress in the world of engineering.

If you’re in need of metal fabrication, trust Astra Engineering to deliver excellent results. We are your go-to metal bending, plating, coating, and welding experts, wherever you’re based around the Wirral or the surrounding areas.

We can construct any small to medium-size fabrication, whether it be using carbon steel, stainless steel or aluminium. Contact us today to enquire about a metal fabrication or metal welding project.